The authors describe a peculiar form of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoma in an HIV-positive patient presenting an aggressive clinical course. Unlike most other EBV-positive T-cell/natural-killer (NK)-cell lymphomas, the disease was characterized by predominant nodal involvement at presentation. T-cell lineage was confirmed by T-cell receptor-rearrangement, and neoplastic cells exhibited strong and diffuse CD56 expression. A marked intravascular component was detected in the skin, the liver, and the lung parenchyma. This entity was not predicted in the WHO 2008 classification, but has been recently identified in immunocompromised patients. This case report refers to a middle-aged man with AIDS, who presented a 4-month history of weight loss, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, peripheral and deep-chain lymphadenopathy. A blood smear showed lymphocytosis with a marked presence of atypia. The outcome was unfavorable and the patient could not be treated. The autopsy revealed multivisceral involvement, including lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, liver, lungs, skin, and kidneys.
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