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Multisystemic Pediatric Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a comprehensive clinico-pathological and BRAF V600E mutation study at autopsy

Gargi Kapatia; Prateek Bhatia; Minu Singh; Richa Jain; Deepak Bansal; Kirti Gupta

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a disorder of antigen-presenting cells, is the commonest disorder of the mononuclear phagocytic system. Diagnosis is always challenging due to heterogeneous clinical presentation. However, with the evolution and better understanding of its biology, many of these children are being diagnosed early and offered appropriate therapy. Despite these advances, in developing countries, an early diagnosis is still challenging due to resource constraints for specialized tests. As a result, many patients succumb to their disease. Autopsy data on LCH is notably lacking in the literature. We sought to analyze the clinical (including mutational) and morphologic features at autopsy in six proven cases of LCH. This study includes a detailed clinico-pathological and mutational analysis of 6 proven cases of LCH. Presence of BRAF V600E mutation was assessed by both Real Time PCR and Sanger sequencing. A varied spectrum of organ involvement was noted with some rare and novel morphological findings, like nodular bronchiolocentric infiltration of LCH cells, lymphovascular emboli of LCH cells, and paucity of eosinophils within the infiltrate; these features have not been described earlier. Surprisingly, all cases were negative for BRAF V600E mutation on both RQ-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The present study is perhaps the first autopsy series on LCH. This extensive autopsy analysis represents a correlation of pathological features with clinical symptoms which provides clues for a timely diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Also, our findings hint at the low frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in our LCH patients.


Autopsy, Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases, Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf


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