Tailgut cysts (TGCs) are rare congenital entities arising from remnants of the embryological postanal primitive gut. Malignancy in TGCs is rare, with the majority being adenocarcinomas and carcinoid tumors. A search of the published literature yielded only 27 cases of adenocarcinoma developing in TGCs. We described the case of a 54-year-old female who presented with complaints of pelvic and perineal pain of several weeks. After the initial work-up, a mass in the right presacral location was diagnosed. She underwent radical resection of the tumor, using a posterior approach. The lesion was removed en bloc with the middle rectum, coccyx, and sacrum (S4–S5). The histopathologic examination revealed an adenocarcinoma arising in a TGC, and the patient received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Our case underlines that diagnosing a TGC is difficult as it is a rare congenital lesion. Clinical examination may be challenging as TGCs present with various symptoms, which can mimic other commonly proctologic disorders. Patients should be referred to a tertiary center with experience in pelvic surgery and must be managed by a multidisciplinary approach to maximize successful treatment. The recommended treatment is surgical excision given the malignant potential of TGCs and their risk of causing local complications.
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