Autopsy and Case Reports
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Article / Autopsy Case Report

Infective endocarditis with left to right intracardiac fistula due to Streptococcus anginosus - a rare complication caused by an even rarer bacterium

Robert Forster; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos; Silvana Maria Lovisolo; Vera Demarchi Aiello; João Augusto dos Santos Martines

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Although infective endocarditis (IE) has been described in reports dating from the Renaissance, the diagnosis still challenges and the outcome often surprises. In the course of time, diagnostic criteria have been updated and validated to reduce misdiagnosis. Some risk factors and epidemiology have shown dynamic changes since degenerative valvular disease became more predominant in developed countries, and the mean age of the affected population increased. Despite streptococci have been being well known as etiologic agents, some groups, although rare, have been increasingly reported (e.g., Streptococcus milleri.) Intracardiac complications of IE are common and have a worse prognosis, frequently requiring surgical treatment. We report a case of a middle-aged diabetic man who presented with prolonged fever, weight loss, and ultimately severe dyspnea. IE was diagnosed based on a new valvular regurgitation murmur, a positive blood culture for Streptococcus anginosus, an echocardiographic finding of an aortic valve vegetation, fever, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite an appropriate antibiotic regimen, the patient died. Autopsy findings showed vegetation attached to a bicuspid aortic valve with an associated septal abscess and left ventricle and aortic root fistula connecting with the pulmonary artery. A large thrombus was adherent to the pulmonary artery trunk and a pulmonary septic thromboemboli were also identified.


Endocarditis, Bicuspid Aortic Valve, , Aorta-pulmonary artery fistula, Pulmonary Embolism, Autopsy


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