Schistosomiasis: a case of severe infection with fatal outcome
Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos; João Gabriel Ramos; João Augusto dos Santos Martines; Elizabeth Im Myung Kim; Luciana Andréa Avena Smeili
Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases, still considered of public health significance. Acute schistosomiasis is of difficult diagnosis and therefore has been overlooked, misdiagnosed, underestimated and underreported in endemic areas. The delay between the exposure to contaminated water and the initial symptoms may explain this challenging diagnosis. Acute schistosomiasis is frequently reported in non-immune individuals while reinfection cases occurring in endemic areas is scarcely documented. The later usually shows a benign course but fatal cases do exist. The authors report a case of a young female patient, in the late puerperium, with a three-month history of weight loss, intermittent fever, cough, thoracic and abdominal pain and increased abdominal girth. Physical examination showed a tachycardia, tachypnea and hypotension. Laboratory tests showed a mild anemia, eosinophilia, and a slightly elevation of liver enzymes. Thorax and abdominal multidetector computed tomography evidenced a diffuse and bilateral pulmonary micronodules and peritoneal and intestinal wall thickening. The patient progressed rapidly to hepatic insufficiency, and death after respiratory insufficiency. An autopsy was performed and the findings were compatible with acute Schistosomiasis in a patient previously exposed to Schistosoma mansoni.